Research Bibliography

Bonta, J., Andrews, D.A. Risk-Need-Responsivity Model for Offender Assessment and Rehabilitation. 2007. Carleton University.

Callahan LA, Noether CD. “Brief Jail Mental Health Screen Utilization in U.S. Jails.” J Forensic Med Forecast. 2018; 1(1): 1006. Downloaded June 26, 2018 from:

Council of Economic Advisors. (2018). Returns on Investment in Recidivism-reducing Programs. May 18, 2018. Retrieved from:

Desmarais, S. L., Johnson, K. L., & Singh, J. P. (2016). Performance of recidivism risk assessment instruments in U.S. correctional settings. Psychological Services, 13(3), 206-222. doi:

Eno Louden, J., & Skeem, J. L. (2012, April 2). How Do Probation Officers Assess and Manage Recidivism and Violence Risk for Probationers with Mental Disorder? An Experimental Investigation. Law and Human Behavior. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/h0093991 Retrieved from:

Gardner, B. O., Boccaccini, M. T., Bitting, B. S., & Edens, J. F. (2015). Personality assessment inventory scores as predictors of misconduct, recidivism, and violence: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Assessment, 27(2), 534-544. doi:​ 

Hyatt, J.M. & Barnes, G. C. (2014). An Experimental Evaluation of the Impact of Intensive Supervision on the Recidivism of High-Risk Probationers. Crime & Delinquency Vol 63, Issue 1, pp. 3 – 38. First Published November 12, 2014. Retrieved from:

James, N. (2015) Risk and Needs Assessment in the Criminal Justice System. Report, October 13, 2015; Washington D.C.

Lowder, E. (2018). Risk assessment and recidivism in the context of mental health diversion programs. Lowder, Evan Marie. North Carolina State University, ProQuest Information & Learning, 2018. AAI10610757.

Lowenkamp, C., Latessa, E. “Understanding the Risk Principle: How and Why Correctional Interventions Can Harm Low-Risk Offenders,” Topics in Community Corrections (2004) 3–8; Edward Latessa, “The Challenge of Change: Correctional Programs Analysis and Policy Framework and Evidence-Based Practices,” Criminology & Public Policy, 3, no. 4 (2004), 547–560. Presented in Justice Center: The Council of State Governments. In Brief: Understanding Risk and Needs Assessments.

PEW Center On The States. Public Safety Performance Project. Issue Brief. Sept. 2011.

Pew Center on the States. Risk/Needs Assessment 101: Science Reveals New Tools to Manage Offenders. Public Safety Issue Report. (Washington, DC: The Pew Charitable Trusts, September 20, 2011),

Prins, S.J. & Draper, L. (2009). Improving Outcomes for People with Mental Illnesses Under Community Corrections Supervision: A Guide to Research-Informed Policy and Practice. Council of State Governments Justice Center New York, New York. Retrieved from:

Prins, S. J., Skeem, J. L., Mauro, C., & Link, B. G. (2015). Criminogenic Factors, Psychotic Symptoms, and Incident Arrests Among People with Serious Mental Illnesses Under Intensive Outpatient Treatment. Law and Human Behavior, 39(2), 177–188.

Ray B. (2014). Long-term recidivism of mental health court defendants. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2014 SepOct; 37(5):448-54. doi: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2014.02.017. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

Rotter, M. & Carr, W.A. (2013). Reducing Criminal Recidivism for Justice-Involved Persons with Mental Illness: Risk/Needs/Responsivity and Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions. SAMHSA’s Gains Center for Behavioral Health and Justice Transformation.

SAMHSA Evidenced Based Practice: Interactive Journaling. Review Date: February 2013: Recidivism

Skeem, J.L., Monahan, J. & Lowenkamp, C. (2016). Gender, Risk Assessment, and Sanctioning: The Cost of Treating Women Like Men (January 18, 2016). Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 10. Available at SRN: or

Skeem, J. L., Winter, E., Kennealy, P. J., Louden, J. E., & Tatar, J. R. II. (2014). Offenders with mental illness have criminogenic needs, too: Toward recidivism reduction. Law and Human Behavior, 38(3), 212- 224.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Screening and Assessment of Co-occurring Disorders in the Justice System. HHS Publication No. (SMA)-15-4930. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015. 4930/SMA15-4930.pdf

Transforming Services for Persons with Mental Illness in Contact with the Criminal Justice System. Policy Research Associates.

Viljoen, J. L., Cochrane, D. M., & Jonnson, M. R. (2018). Do risk assessment tools help manage and reduce risk of violence and reoffending? A systematic review. Law and Human Behavior, 42(3), 181-214. doi:

Washington State Institute for Public Policy. Inventory of Evidence-Based, Research-based, and Promising programs for Adult Corrections. Feb. 2018.

Watler, C. (2014) Dr. Ed Latessa on Evidence-Based Practices. Lecture conducted at 2014 International Community Court Summit in San Francisco, CA. Retrieved from